Vigour Test to Predict Seed Germination and Normal Seedling Emergence of Acacia mangium in Nursery

Endang Pujiastuti, Dede J. Sudrajat


Standard germination does not always indicate seed lot potential performance, especially if field germination conditions are less than optimal. Seed vigour tests therefore have been proposed to detect more accurate differences in potential seed lot performance. This study is aimed to obtain more precise method to assess Acacia mangium seed vigour correlated to germination success in a greenhouse and normal seedling emergency in a nursery. Tests were conducted on 13 seed lots collected from some certified seed sources. Seed testing and nursery activities were carried out at the Seed Laboratory of Forest Tree Seed Technology Research & Development Centre, Bogor. Experimental designs were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for laboratory tests (standard germination, germination index, number of normal seedling in the first count, radicle length, tetrazolium test, controlled deterioration test, accelerated aging, conductivity test), germination in a greenhouse and direct sowing in a nursery. Results showed that all tests were significantly different for ranking seed vigor in the different seed lots. Seed lot from Subanjeriji-2 provided the best germination performance in the greenhouse and direct sowingin the nursery, followed by seed lot from Parungpanjang, while seed lot from Kenangan had the lowest germination performance. The relationship between some laboratory tests, i.e. top paper test, germination index, and electrical conductivity test, and the greenhouse and nursery tests were significant. The electrical conductivity test had the highest accuracy with R2= 0,6278 for greenhouse test and R2= 0,4057 for nursery test. Overall, among all the laboratory tests, electrical conductivity test showed seeds well, so the usage of the electrical conductivity test for predicting normal seedling emergence could be suitable in A. mangium nursery programs.


germination; laboratory test; nursery; standard; vigour

Full Text:



Barner, H., & Ditlevsen. (1988). Strategies and procedures for an integrated national tree-seed programe for seed procurement, tree improvement and genetic resources. Lecture Note A-1, Danida Forest Seed Centre. Denmark.

Bonner, E. (1986). Measurement of seed vigor for loblolly and slash pines. Forest Science, 32, 170–178.

Bonner, F. T. (1998). Testing tree seeds for vigor: A review. Seed Tehcnology, 20(1), 5–17.

Chaisurisri, K., Edwards, D. G. W., & El-Kassaby, Y. A. (1993). Accelerated aging of Sitka spruce seeds. Silvae Genetica, 42,303–30.

DBPTH. (2014). Lokakarya penyusunan Standar Mutu Benih dan Mutu Bibit Tanarnan Hutan. In Kebijakan pengujian benih. Solo, 4-7 November 2014: Direktorat Bina Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan. Jakarta.

Ghassemi-Golezani, K., Bakhshy, Y., Raey, J., & Hossenizadeh-Mahotchi, A. (2010). Seed vigor and field performance of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Not Botany Hort Agro-Botanica Cluj, 38, 146–150.

Gill, N. S., & Delouche, J. . (1973). Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 63. In Deterioration of seed corn during storage. (pp. 35–50).

Hegde, M., Palanisamy, K., & Yi, J. S. (2013). Acacia mangium Willd. - A fast growing tree for tropical plantation. Journal of Forest Science, 29(1), 1–14.

Heydecker, W. (1969). Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 34. In The vigour of seeds: a review (pp. 201–2019).

ISTA. (2012). International rules for seed testing : Edition 2012. Bassersdorf CH. Switzerland: International Seed Testing Association.

Kan, Z. A., Shah, P., Mohd, F., Khan, H., Amanullah, A., Pervin, S.,...Zubair, M. (2010). Vigor tests used to rank seed lot quality and predict field emergence in wheat. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(5), 3147–3155.

Kehutanan Kementerian. (2013). Statistik kehutanan Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Informasi dan Dokumentasi Kehutanan, Kementerian Kehutanan.

Khaliliaqdam, N., Soltani, A., Latifi, N., & Far, F. G. (2013). Laboratory tests for predicting emergence of soybean cultivars. Plant Knowledge Journal, 2(2), 89–93.

Lee, S. S. (2004). Diseases and potential threats to Acacia mangium plantations in Malaysia. Unasylva, 287(55), 31–35.

Loeffler, T. M., TeKrony, D. M., & Egli, D. B. (1988). The bulk conductivity test as an indicator of soybean seed quality. Journal of Seed Technology, 12, 37–53.

Mahjabin, Bilal, S., & A.B., A. (2015). Physiological and biochemical changes during seed deterioration: A review. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research Research, 6(4), 3416–3422.

Maity, A., & Chakrabarty, S. K. (2013). Effect of environmental factors on hybrid seed quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). African Journal of Agriculture Research, 8(48), 6213–6219.

Marcos-Filho, M. (2015). Seed vigor testing: an overview of the past, present and future perspective. Scientia Agricola, 72(4), 363–374.

Martin, A. B. N., Marini, P., Bandeira, J. M., Villela, A., & Moraes, D. M. (2012). Analysis of seed quality: A nonstop evolving activity. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(49), 3549–3554.

Milosevic, Vujakovic, M., & Karagic, D. (2010). Vigour tests as indicators of seed viability. Genetika, 42(1), 103–118.

Naderidarbaghshahi, M., & Bahari. (2012). Assessment the relationship between seed vigor tests and seed field performance of some forage crops of Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4(23), 1763–1766.

Noli, E., Casarini, G., Urso, G., & Conti, S. (2008). Suitability of three vigour test procedures to predict field performance of early sown maize seed. Seed Science and Technology, 36, 168–176.

Sorensen, A., Laurisen, E. B., & Thomsen, K. (1996). Electrical conductivity test. Danida Forest Seed Centre. Humlebaek.

Sudharani, M., & Padmasri, A. (2014). Assessment of seed vigour tests for relative storability and field performance in cotton. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7(9), 59–62.

Sudrajat, D., Nurhasybi, & Yulianti. (2015). Standar Pengujian dan mutu benih tanaman hutan. Bogor: Forda Press.

Tavacoli H, Behesti A, & Nasirimhalati M. (2005). Assessment of seed alfalfa quality by seed tests. Journal of Agronomic Research 3(1),25-32.

Vieira, R. D., Paiva, A. J. A., & Perecin, D. (1999). Electrical conductivity and field performance of soybean seeds. Seed Technology, 21, 15–24.

Vieira, R. D., Paiva-Aguero, J.A., Perecin, D., & Bittencourt, S. R. (1999). Correlation of electrical conductivity and other vigor tests with field emergence of soybean seedlings. Seed Science and Technology, 27, 67–75.

Walsh, S., Potts, M., Remington, T., Sperling, L., & Turner, A. (2014). Defining seed quality and principles of seed storage in a smallholder context. Seed Storage Brief 31,Catholic Relief Services, Nairobi.

Wang, Y. R., & Hampton, J. G. (1989). Proceedings of the clover vigour testing. In Red clover (Trifoliumpratense L.). seed quality (pp. 63–68). Agronomy Society New Zealand.

Wang, Y. R., Yu, L., Nan, Z. B., & Liu, Y. L. (2004). Vigor tests used to rank seed lot quality and predict field emergence in four forage species, Crop Science,44, 535–541.

Yulianti, B., Cahyadi, & Ulfah, U. J. (2002). Pengaruh pengusangan dipercepat terhadap viabilitas benih Acacia mangium. Buletin Teknologi Perbenihan Bogor.

Zanzibar, M., Herdiana, N., Novita, I., Kartiana, E. R., Muharam, A., & Ismiati, E. (2003). Pedoman uji cepat viabilitas benih tanaman hutan. Buku I. Bogor: Publikasi Khusus Balai Penelitian Teknologi Perbenihan.


Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Published by:

Forest Tree Seed Technology Research & Development Center (FTSTRDC)

Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan
Jl. Pakuan Ciheuleut PO BOX 105 Bogor Jawa Barat  Indonesia
telepon  : 0817742659/081283343209/085243000150
email     :




Web      :

email    :

This journal indexed by:


Copyright © 2017|Jurnal Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan, Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan (e-ISSN 2527-6565, p-ISSN 2354-8568)