Yayah Rodiana, Daam Settachan, Thundorn Saneanukul, Jerry Diamond


The regulation of point source discharges usually based on specific chemicals which describe thresholds below which no adverse impact on the receiving water. The limitation of this technique includes the fact that it does not take into account interactions among toxicants (e.g. additivity, synergism, antagonism). Therefore, toxicity testing is recommended as integrated approach for identifying toxic pollutants to complement chemical-specific analysis by assessing the sum toxicity of all components in the mixture. The objective of this research was the assessment of Penaeus monodon (PM) as an indicator species for toxicity testing through comparisons between results from 48-h LC50 and chemical analysis of the natural gas drilling effluent. Chemical analysis of effluent samples was performed in order to determine concentrations of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene) and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Cd). Average 48-h LC50’s for PM was 2,94 % for effluent and 0.68 g/l for KCl. Comparison between acute toxicity and chemical analysis showed a significant correlation between toluene concentrations and 48-h LC50 in PM (p<0.05). No significant correlation was found between the detectable heavy metal concentrations and acute toxicity data in PM. Results suggest that the lack of correlation between toxicity and almost all chemical parameters indicates that toxicity testing is much more useful for monitoring toxicity of effluents than chemical analysis. Additional studies are needed to identify alternative toxicity endpoints as sensitive indicators of impacts on the environments


Penaeus monodon, acute toxicity testing, effluent, reference toxicant, BTEX, heavy metal

Full Text:



Min K. Wastewater Pollution in China. [access: 4 July 2008]; Available from: suscoasts/krismin.html

Rita Comotto Bahner DJH, ASTM Committee E-47 on Biological Effects and Environmental Fate. Aquatic toxicology and hazard assessment: eighth symposium : a symposium, Issue 891. Baltimore, MD: ASTM International; 1985

Jin H, Yang X, Yin D, Yu H. A Case Study on Identifying the Toxicant in Effluent Discharged from a Chemical Plant. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 1999;39(1-12):122-5.

Holdway DA. The acute and chronic effects of wastes associated with offshore oil and gas production on temperate and tropical marine ecological processes. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2002;44(3):185-203.

Julie A Hall LG. Standard Methods for Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing: Development and Application. New Zealand: National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd1998 November 1998.Adams MS, Stauber JL, Binet MT, Molloy R, Gregory D. Toxicity of a secondary-treated sewage effluent to marine biota in Bass Strait, Australia: Development of action trigger values for a toxicity monitoring program. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2008;57(6-12):587-98.

Promsoongwong S. “Appropriate Test Conditions For Industrial Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing In Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.”: Mahidol University. 2004.

Technical Support Document for the Code of Practice for Produced Water from Oil and Gas Operations in the Gulf of Thailand. California. Tetra Tech, Inc.2002 June 28

Surapukdee t. Whole Effluent Toxicity Test Species Comparisons to Detrmine Whether Responses Seen in Penaeus monodon and Lates calcarifer are Representative for Native Species in The Gulf of Thailand. Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology. 2004.

USEPA. Understanding and Accountingfor Method Variability in Whole Effluent Toxicity Applications Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Washington DC: U.S. EPA Office of Wastewater Management; 2002. p. 185.

S. Akbari aTL, and M. Shariff. Toxicity of water soluble fractions of crude oil to fish, lutjanus argentimaculatus and shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, Trans A. 2003;Volume 28, Number A1:7

USEPA. Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organism, fifth edition. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA office of water (4303T); 2002.

Adebayo A. Otitoloju OKE, Adesola O. Osibona. Biological responses in edible crab, Callinectes amnicola that could serve as markers of heavy metals pollution. Springer Science Business Media, LLC. 2009: 29. effects on receiving waters.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Ecolab

This Journal Index by:





e-ISSN: 2502-8812, p-ISSN: 1978-5860
Ecolab is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License