KARAKTERISTIK DAN POTENSI PEMANFAATAN ASAP CAIR KAYU TREMA, NANI, MERBAU, MATOA, DAN KAYU MALAS

Sri Komarayati, Gusmailina Gusmailina, Lisna Efiyanti

Sari


Kayu merupakan biomassa potensial dengan berbagai manfaat, salah satunya adalah sebagai bahan baku asap cair. Penelitian mengenai asap cair yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis kayu perlu dilakukan secara intensif untuk mendapatkan informasi kandungan dan manfaat komponen asap cair. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan potensi manfaat asap cair lima jenis kayu, yaitu kayu trema, nani, merbau, matoa, dan malas. Penelitian dilakukan dengan proses pirolisis pada suhu 500°C selama 5 jam, dan asap cair yang dihasilkan ditampung dalam wadah untuk dianalisis karakteristiknya. Karakteristik asap cair yang dipelajari meliputi pH, berat jenis, kadar asam asetat, kadar fenol, dan kandungan komponen kimia lainnya, menggunakan py-GCMS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai pH asap cair kelima jenis kayu berkisar antara 2,68 –4,34, berat jenis 0,83–1,04, kadar asetat 0,65– 13,09% dan kadar fenol 0,19–2,50%. Sementara itu, hasil analisis py-GCMS menunjukkan keragaman komponen kimia yang terkandung dalam asap cair masing-masing jenis kayu dengan komponen utama sebagai penciri asap cair pada kelima jenis kayu adalah senyawa asam asetat (acetic acid, ethylic acid), fenol (phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy (CAS) 2,6-dimethoxyphenol), dan asam karbamat. Komponen kimia asap cair diharapkan dapat diaplikasikan dalam berbagai variasi produk yang lebih luas sesuai cara pandang, tujuan, dan target produk yang ingin dicapai.


Kata Kunci


Asap cair; kayu; komponen kimia; pirolisis

Teks Lengkap:

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Referensi


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20886/jphh.2018.36.3.219-238

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