KARAKTERISASI BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK KEMIRI SUNAN DENGAN KATALIS HETEROGEN SILIKA TERIMPREGNASI KALSIUM OKSIDA (CaO/SiO2)

Haryono Haryono, Yati B Yuliyati, Atiek Rostika Noviyanti, Mochammad Rizal, Sarifah Nurjanah

Sari


Biodiesel komersial umumnya diproduksi dari minyak sawit yang telah menjadi kontroversi karena minyak sawit merupakan minyak pangan dan tanaman kelapa sawit memanfaatkan lahan subur.  Salah satu jenis minyak nabati potensial sebagai bahan baku pembuatan biodiesel adalah minyak kemiri sunan (Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw). Minyak kemiri sunan bersifat non-pangan sehingga tidak akan berkompetisi dengan kebutuhan pangan. Dalam pembentukan biodiesel, penggunaan katalis basa homogen pada tahap trans-esterifikasi berpotensi menimbulkan beberapa masalah, salah satunya akibat keberadaan asam lemak bebas (ALB). Penelitian ini bertujuan menyiapkan katalis padat heterogen berupa katalis SiO2 terimpregnasi CaO (CaO/SiO2), mempelajari pengaruh tahap esterifikasi terhadap perubahan kadar ALB minyak, dan menguji aktivitas katalis CaO/SiO2 pada tahap trans-esterifikasi dalam pembentukan biodiesel. Katalis CaO/SiO2 disiapkan dengan metode sol-gel dari bahan alam (cangkang telur dan sekam padi). Kadar ALB dari minyak kemiri sunan divariasikan melalui tahap esterifikasi selama 1; 1,5; dan 2 jam dengan bantuan katalis H2SO4. Sedangkan tahap trans-esterifikasi dilakukan pada suhu 60°C, rasio mol minyak terhadap metanol sebesar 1:9, lama reaksi dua jam, dan kadar katalis CaO/SiO2 sebanyak 3%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tahap esterifikasi selama 1; 1,5; dan 2 jam telah mampu menurunkan kadar ALB minyak dari 12,5% (tanpa esterifikasi) menjadi 0,65%; 0,58%; dan 0,54%. Biodiesel dari minyak kemiri sunan yang disintesis dengan bantuan katalis CaO/SiO2 pada kondisi optimal di tahap trans-esetrifikasi memenuhi standar SNI 7182-2015 mengenai biodiesel, untuk parameter densitas, viskositas, kadar air, bilangan iodin, dan bilangan cetana.


Kata Kunci


Biodiesel; kadar ALB; katalis heterogen; minyak kemiri sunan; trans-esterifikasi

Teks Lengkap:

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Referensi


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20886/jphh.2020.38.1.10-20

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