SIFAT KIMIA DAN KUALITAS ARANG LIMA JENIS KAYU ASAL KALIMANTAN BARAT

Lisna Efiyanti, Suci Aprianty Wati, Dadang Setiawan, Saepuloh Saepuloh, Gustan Pari

Sari


Indonesia memiliki hutan yang cukup luas dengan jenis pohon penghasil kayu yang sangat beragam. Kayu dapat dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai produk seperti furnitur, kerajinan, konstruksi bangunan serta produk lain seperti arang. Pemanfaatan kayu juga pada umumnya berhubungan dengan sifat fisik, kimia, anatomi maupun mekanik kayu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi kimia dan ekstraktif lima jenis kayu kurang dikenal asal Kalimantan Barat, yaitu kayu kumpang, bengkulung, sawang, kempili, dan ubar serta pengaruhnya terhadap sifat arang yang terbuat dari jenis-jenis kayu tersebut. Lima jenis kayu tersebut dianalisa komponen kimia serta zat ekstraktif sesuai metode SNI. Kemudian tiap jenis kayu diproses menjadi arang dengan metode pirolisis pada suhu 500°C selama 5 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar selulosa, pentosan, dan lignin kelima jenis kayu tersebut masing-masing berkisar antara 51,53-61,16%; 13,93-17,67% dan 26,55-38,46%. Kadar kelarutan dalam air dingin, air panas, NaOH 1% dan alkohol-benzena masing-masing berkisar antara 0,632-2,640%; 3,28-8,41%; 10,41-19,01% dan 3,38-4,3%. Adapun untuk kadar air, kadar abu dan kadar silika kelima jenis kayu masing-masing berkisar 7,97-9,97%; 0,32-2,14; 0,21-0,68%. Produk arang yang terbentuk dari kelima jenis kayu tersebut telah memenuhi standar persyaratan SNI dengan nilai kadar air, abu, zat terbang, dan karbon terikat masing-masing berkisar antara 0,01-0,69%; 0,59-5,40; 13,95-26,15%; dan 73,05-84%. Produk arang yang memiliki kualitas terbaik berasal dari kayu kumpang.


Kata Kunci


Arang; karakterisasi; kimia kayu; kumpang; lignin

Teks Lengkap:

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Referensi


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20886/jphh.2020.38.1.45-56

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