PENGARUH SUSUNAN LAMINA KAYU KARET TUA TERHADAP SIFAT KEKUATAN BALOK SILANG-I LAMINASI

Han Roliadi, Nurwati Hadjib

Sari


Perakitan balok silang-I laminasi dilakukan menggunakan kayu karet tua (Hevea brasiliensis) asal pohon karet yang sudah tidak produktif lagi menghasilkan getah lateks (umur sekitar 25-30 tahun). Mula-mula, dolok kayu karet (diameter sekitar 10-25 cm) terlebih dulu dibentuk menjadi lamian (bilah- bilah) melalui penggergajian. Rendemen bilah tersebut (36-39%) masih lebih rendah dari pada rendemen yang umum dari kayu berdiameter besar. Bilah yang dihasilkan dirakit menjadi balok silang-I menggunakan perekat fenol-resorsinol-formaldehida pada suhu kamar. Hasil perakitan menunjukkan kekuatan balok silang-I laminasi dengan profil rekatan horisontal antar lamina dibagian tubuh atau badan (keteguhan lengkung pada batas proporsi = 132.97 kg/cm2, MOR = 184.13 kg/cm2, MOE = 54425.196 kg/cm2, dan keteguhan geser horisontal = 2.9397 kg/cm2) lebih rendah dari pada sifat balok kayu karet utuh berdimensi kecil bebas cacat, tetapi lebih tinggi dari pada balok silang-I laminasi dengan profil rekatan vertikal dan produk balok laminasi (glulam) juga dari kayu karet tua dengan profil rekatan horisontal antar lamina. Di samping itu terdapat korelasi nyata negatif antara sudut jari-jari kayu - bidang rekatan dengan sifat mekanis/ kekuatan balok silang-I laminasi. Ini mengindikasikan prospek positif pembuatan balok silang-I laminasi laminasi dari kayu karet tua dengan profil rekatan vertikal tersebut untuk tujuan konstruksi, karena dapat lebih menghemat pemakaian bahan baku.


Kata Kunci


Kayu karet tua; limbah perkebunan karet; diameter kecil; keawetan rendah; balok silang-I laminasi; sifat kekuatan

Teks Lengkap:

PDF

Referensi


Anonim. 1956. Timber Design and Construction Handbook. F.W. Dodge Corporation. New York. 263-327 pp.

Anonim. 1957. Forestry Handbook. The Ronald Press Company. New York.

Anonim. 1984. Standard Methods of Testing Small Clear Specimens of Timber. American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM) D245. Philadelphia, Pensylvania.

Anonim. 1995. Engineered wood products: Thw future is bright. Forest Products Journal, 45 (7/8): 17-24.

Anonim. 1999. Wood handbook. Wood as engineering material Agricultural Handbook No. 72. Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service. Madison, Wisconsin. 10 (1): 10-11 pp.

Anonim. 2002. Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia tahun 2001-2002. Departemen Kehutanan. Jakarta

Anonim. 2003. The Development of Small-Diameter Logs and Non-Wood Forest Products Processing Industry. Foresttry Research and Development Agency. Brief Report. Jakarta, Indonesia.

Anonim. 2005. Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia tahun 2004-2005. Departemen Kehutanan. Jakarta

Anonim. 2006. Kayu Alam Distop Total: Laju Degradasi Hutan Mencapai 2,87 hektar per tahun. Harian Kompas, tanggal 28 April 2006, Hlm. 22, Jakarta

Beer, F.P. dan E.R. 1987. Johnston. Mechanics for Enggineers: Statics, fourth edition. McGraw-Hill Book. Co. New York.

Blomquist, F.F., A.W. Christiansen, R.H. Gilepsie, and G.E. Myers. 1981. Adhesive Bonding of Wood and Other Structural Materials. Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, USDA. The Pennsylvania State Univ. PA. 16802, USA.

Brown, H.P., A.J. Panshin, dan C.G. Forsaith. 1952. Textbook of Wood Technology, vol. II. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York.

Floyd, S.L. dan N.P. Kutscha. 2000. Development of Softwood Plantation Timber in The United States. Forest Products Journal, 50 (11/12): 20-24

Freas, A.D. dan M.L. Selbo. 1954. Fabrication and Design of Glued Laminated Wood Structural Members. Technical Bull. No. 1069. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. Washington, D.C.

Haygreen, J.G. dan J.L. Bowyer. 1989. Forest Products and Wood Science. Lowa State University Press / Ames. 213-226 pp.

Hunt, J.F. 2000. Utilization of Small-Diameter Crooked Timbers for Use in Laminated Structural Boards Through Development of New Sawing, Laminating, and Drying Processes. Proposal No. 01.FPL.C2 to USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. Madison, Wisconsin. Hunt, J.F. and J.E. Winandy. 2003. Lam I-joist. A New Structural Building Product From Small-Diameter, Fire-Prone Timber. Research Note FPL-RN-0291. Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service. Madison, Wisconsin. 1-4 pp.

Leichti, R.J. 1986. Assessing The Reliability of Wood Composite I-Beam. Ph.D. Dissertation. Auburn University (Limited Circulation).

Maloney, T.M. 1986. Juvenile wood. Problems in Composition Products. In: Proc. 47309 Juvenile Wood. What does it Mean to Forest Management and Forest Products. Forest Products Research Society. Madison, Wisconsin.

Martawijaya, A., I. Kartasujana, K. Kadir, S.A. Prawira, dan Y.I. Mandang. 2005. Atlas kayu Indonesia. Jidid I, II, dan III. Departemen Kehutanan, Badan Litbang Kehutanan. Bogor, Indonesia.

Martono, D. 2006. Potensi kayu karet jangan dilupakan. Ranting Warta Hasil Hutan, 1 (1): 2-3. Pusat Litbang Hasil Hutan. Bogor.

McGavin, R.L., M.P. Davies, dan W.J. Atyeo. 2006. Utilisation Potential and Market Opportunities for Plantation Hardwood Thinnings from Queensland and Northern New South Wales: Manufacturing and Products. Project No. PN05.2022. September 2006. Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation. Australian Government.

Nurhayati, T., Y. Waridi, and H. Roliadi. 2006. Progress in The Technology of Energy Conversion from Woody Biomass in Indonesia. For. Stud. China, 8 (3): 1-8.

Oey Djoen Seng, 1990. Berat Jenis dari Jenis-Jenis Kayu Indonesia dan Pengertian Beratnya Kayu Untuk Keperluan Praktek. Pengumuman No. 13. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan, Badan Litbang Kehutanan, Departemen Kehutanan. Bogor.

Panshin, A.J. and de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York. 288-308 pp.

Selbo, M.L. 1975. Adhesive Bonding of Wood. Technical Bulletin No. 1512. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. Washington, D.C.

Silva, S.S. 1970. Industrial Utilization of Rubber Wood for Wood-Based Panel Products. R.R.I.C. Bulletion (New Series). September/December 1970, vol. 5 (3/4): 40-57. The Rubber Research Institute of Ceylon.

Rachman, O. 1999. Sawing Technology, Part I: Wood Material and Sawing Process. Center for Forest Products Research and Development. Bogor, Indonesia. (Unpublisdhed)

Walker, J.C.F., B.G. Butterfield, J.M. Harris, and J.M. Uprichard. 1993. Primary Wood Processing. Chapman & Hall. London. 321-374 pp.

Youngs, R. dan A.L. Hammet. 2001. Diversity, Productivity, rofitability, Sustainability, and The Tao of Underutilized Species. Forest Products Journal, 51 (1): 29-35.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.20886/jphh.2010.28.2.130-145

Refbacks

  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.


JURNAL PENELITIAN HASIL HUTAN TERINDEKS DI:

Lebih banyak...


Copyright © 2015 | Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan (JPHH, Journal of Forest Products Research)
eISSN : 2442-8957, pISSN : 0216-4329
JPHH is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.