DAYA SIMPAN BENIH JABON PUTIH [Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser] BERDASARKAN POPULASI DAN KARAKTERISTIK BENIH (Seed Storability of Jabon Putih [Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser] Base on Populations and Seed Characteristics)

Evayusvita Rustam, Tatiek K. Suharsi, M. Rahmad Suhartanto, Dede J. Sudrajat

Sari


ABSTRACT 

Jabon putih  [Neolamarckia  cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser] has been cultivated in large scale. However it is constrained by the availability of high quality seeds and seed storability information. This study aimed to identify seed storability of jabon putih based on populations and  seed morpho-physiological characteristics. Seeds were collected from eight populations, located in eight provinces. Population was a single factor in a completely randomized design for testing the  germination characteristics (germination capacity, germination uniformity, germination speed, mean germination time and germination value) before and after storage. Geo-climate and soil macro elements were used as parameters to examine the correlation between environmental factors and seed characteristics before and after storage. Population was significantly correlated with germination characteristics, before and after storage for 54 months. The results indicated that seeds from Pomalaa population had the best germination characteristics, while those from Ogan Kemiring Ilir had the worst germination characteristics. Based on moisture content and storability, jabon putih seed could be categorized as orthodox that can be stored in long time at low temperatures with low moisture content. Geo-climate and soil macro element were not significantly correlated with germination. This result indicated that genetic factor had high contribution to seed storability of jabon putih.

ABSTRAK

Jabon putih [Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser] telah banyak dibudidayakan dalam skala luas, namun terkendala dengan ketersediaan benih bermutu dan belum adanya informasi daya simpan benih. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi karakteristik daya simpan benih jabon putih berdasarkan populasi dan karakteristik morfo-fisiologi benih. Benih dikumpulkan dari delapan populasi yang terletak di delapan provinsi. Populasi menjadi faktor tunggal dalam rancangan acak lengkap untuk menguji karakteristik perkecambahan (daya berkecambah, keserempakan tumbuh, kecepatan berkecambah, rata-rata waktu berkecambah dan nilai perkecambahan) sebelum dan setelah penyimpanan. Geo-klimat dan unsur makro tanah merupakan parameter yang dipakai untuk menguji korelasi antara faktor lingkungan dan karakteristik perkecambahan benih sebelum dan sesudah disimpan. Perbedaan asal benih atau populasi berpengaruh nyata terhadap perkecambahan benih sebelum dan setelah disimpan selama 54 bulan. Benih dari populasi Pomalaa (Sulawesi Tengah) mempunyai karakteristik perkecambahan terbaik sedangkan benih dari populasi Ogan Kemiring Ilir (Sumatera Selatan) mempunyai karakteristik perkecambahan terendah. Berdasarkan tingkat kadar air dan daya simpannya, benih jabon putih dapat dikategorikan sebagai benih ortodoks yang mampu disimpan lama pada suhu dan  kadar air  rendah. Sebagian besar faktor geo-klimat dan unsur makro tanah tidak berkorelasi nyata dengan perkecambahan benih baik sebelum maupun setelah disimpan. Hasil penelitian ini memberi indikasi bahwa faktor genetik berkontribusi besar dalam mempengaruhi perbedaan daya simpan benih jabon putih.


Kata Kunci


Genetic factor; morpho-physiological; ortodox seed; storage; Benih ortodoks; faktor genetik; morfo-fisiologi; penyimpanan

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Referensi


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20886/jpht.2017.14.1.19-34

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