DINAMIKA PENCAPAIAN KONSENSUS DALAM FORUM KOORDINASI PENGELOLAAN DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI: SUATU PEMODELAN BERBASIS AGEN (The dynamic of reaching consensus in the coordination forum of watershed management: an agent-based modeling)

Evi Irawan


Paradigm change of watershed management towards participative management brings consequences in the involvement of stakeholders in the decision-making process. While on one hand it can increase the social legitimacy of various watershed management policies and activities, the involvement of many stakeholders on the other hand may delay the achievement of consensus and reconciliation of interests. This study aims to examine the influence of social networks built among members of the Central Java Watershed Management Coordination Forum (Forum DAS) on the achievement of consensus with regards to a watershed planning. The research method used agent-based modeling simulation combined with in-depth interview data of forum members. The simulation model was developed using Netlogo 6.02 software. The simulation results show that the structure of the established communications network at this time has not been able to facilitate in the achievement of consensus, but tends to create formation of opinion polarization.


watershed forum; consensus; social network; agent-based simulation; netlogo


Achyar, E., Schmidt-Vogt, D., & Shivakoti, G. P. (2015). Dynamics of the multi-stakeholder forum and its effectiveness in promoting sustainable forest fire management practices in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Environmental Development, 13, 4–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2014.11.002

Borgatti, S. P. (2006). Identifying sets of key players in a social network. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 12(1), 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10588-006-7084-x

Breeman, G., Dijkman, J., & Termeer, C. (2015). Enhancing food security through a multi-stakeholder process: the global agenda for sustainable livestock. Food Security, 7(2), 425–435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0430-4

Faysse, N. (2006). Troubles on the way: An analysis of the challenges faced by multi-stakeholder platforms. Natural Resources Forum, 30(3), 219–229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-8947.2006.00112.x

Galloway, T., & Dowd, M. (2016). Organizational Studies and Business Models. New York, USA: College Publishing House.

Ghorbani, A., & Bravo, G. (2016). Managing the commons: A simple model of the emergence of institutions through collective action. International Journal of the Commons, 10(1), 200–219. https://doi.org/10.18352/ijc.606

Happach, R. ., & Tilebein, M. (2015). Simulation as Research Method: Modeling Social Interactions in Management Science. In Collective Agency and Cooperation in Natural and Artificial Systems (pp. 239–259). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15515-9

Heikkila, T., & Gerlak, A. K. (2005). The Formation of Large-scale Collaborative Resource Management Institutions: Clarifying the Roles of Stakeholders, Science, and Institutions. The Policy Studies Journal, 33(4), 583–612.

Hemmati, M. (2002). Multi-stakeholder processes for governance and sustainability: Beyond Deadlock and Conflict. London, United Kingdom: Earthscan Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781849772037

Hermans, F., Sartas, M., van Schagen, B., van Asten, P., & Schut, M. (2017). Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development: Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling. PloS One, 12(2), e0169634. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169634

Irawan, E., & Haryanti, N. (2017). Peran Forum Koordinasi dalam Membangun dan Mempertahankan Aksi Kolektif Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai di Provinsi Jawa Tengah. In S. Dwiatmoko, Suyitno, Mulyanto, P. Y. Nugrahedi, I. Rahutami, Sulistyani, & M. Christiyanto (Eds.), Inovasi dan Kreasi Memajukan Jawa Tengah (pp. 619–624). Semarang, Indonesia: Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan, Penelitian dan Pengembangan Daerah Provinsi Jawa Tengah.

Janssen, M. A., & Bushman, C. (2008). Evolution of cooperation and altruistic punishment when retaliation is possible. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 254(3), 541–545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2008.06.017

Kiptot, E., Franzel, S., Hebinck, P., & Richards, P. (2006). Sharing seed and knowledge: Farmer to farmer dissemination of agroforestry technologies in western Kenya. Agroforestry Systems, 68(3), 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-006-9007-8

Lamontagne, M.-E., Swaine, B. R., Lavoie, A., Champagne, F., & Marcotte, A.-C. (2010). Consensus group sessions: a useful method to reconcile stakeholders’ perspectives about network performance evaluation. International Journal of Integrated Care, 10, e117. https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.537

Lienert, J., Schnetzer, F., & Ingold, K. (2013). Stakeholder analysis combined with social network analysis provides fine-grained insights into water infrastructure planning processes. Journal of Environmental Management, 125, 134–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.03.052

Martini, E., Roshetko, J. M., & Paramita, E. (2017). Can farmer-to-farmer communication boost the dissemination of agroforestry innovations? A case study from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems, 91(5), 811–824. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-016-0011-3

Ortiz-arroyo, D. (2010). Discovering Sets of Key Players in Social Networks. In A. Abraham, A.-E. Hassanien, & V. Snášel (Eds.), Computational Social Network Analysis (pp. 27–47). London, United Kingdom: Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84882-229-0

Prell, C., Hubacek, K., & Reed, M. (2009). Stakeholder analysis and social network analysis in natural resource management. Society and Natural Resources, 22(6), 501–518. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920802199202

Sabastian, G., Kanowski, P., Race, D., Williams, E., & Roshetko, J. M. (2014). Household and farm attributes affecting adoption of smallholder timber management practices by tree growers in Gunungkidul region, Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems, 88(2), 257–268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-014-9673-x

Stein, C., Ernstson, H., & Barron, J. (2011). A social network approach to analyzing water governance: The case of the Mkindo catchment, Tanzania. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 36(14–15), 1085–1092. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2011.07.083

Sudarmadji, Sugiarto, F., Sari, R. D. K., Riyanto, I. A., Cahyadi, A., & Sudrajat, S. (2017). Tradisi dan Religi sebagai Upaya Konservasi Mata Air Masyarakat Perdesaan: Studi Kasus Masyarakat Kecamatan Girimulyo, Kabupaten Kulon Progo. Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai, 1(1), 49–59.

Thabrew, L., Wiek, A., & Ries, R. (2009). Environmental decision making in multi-stakeholder contexts: applicability of life cycle thinking in development planning and implementation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(1), 67–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.03.008

Thiele, G., Devaux, A., Reinoso, I., Pico, H., Montesdeoca, F., Pumisacho, M., … Horton, D. (2011). Multi-stakeholder platforms for linking small farmers to value chains: Evidence from the Andes. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9(3), 423–433. https://doi.org/10.1080/14735903.2011.589206

W. Hastanti, B. (2017). Kondisi Lingkungan dan Karakteristik Sosial Budaya untuk Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (Studi Kasus pada Suku Dani di Jayawijaya, Papua). Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai, 1(2), 111–126. https://doi.org/10.20886/jppdas.2017.1.2.111-126

Warner, J. F. (2006). More sustainable participation? Multi-Stakeholder Platforms for integrated catchment management. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 22(1), 15–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620500404992

Wilensky, U. (1999). Netlogo. Evanston, IL: Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.20886/jppdas.2018.2.1.45-60


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.




Published by:

Cooperation Watershed Management Technology Center (WMTC) with Soil & Water Conservation Society of Indonesia (Masyarakat Konservasi Tanah dan Air Indonesia) or MKTI.

eISSN : 2579-5511,  pISSN : 2579-6097


Watershed Management Technology Center (WMTC)
Jl. Jend A. Yani-Pabelan, Kartasura Po.BOX 295 Surakarta 57102
Phone.(0271) 716709 ; Fax(0271) 716959;
Email : sekred.jppdas@gmail.com

Website : http://dassolo.litbang.menlhk.go.id/

Copyright : Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (Journal of Watershed Management Research)