Liliana Baskorowati


Santalum album is one of the extinct species which need to be conserved. Therefore, the information of reproductive biology of this species, especially the pollination system can produce important clues in order to conserve it.  Preliminary study of pollination system of S. album was conducted at ex-situ conservation plot at Watusipat, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. The observations showed that S. album flowers categorised as protandrous, which structured acropetally; this structure may lead self-pollination within a spike. However, result from artificial pollination showed that S. album was a predominantly out crossing species. Very low level of seeds setted from self-pollinated flowers indicated that pollinator was needed for reproduction process. Observation revealed that European honey bee (Apis mellifera) was one of potential pollinating agents.


Santalum album; artificial pollination; pollination system; pollination agent

Full Text:



Bagachi SK, HD Kulkarni, 1987. A note on seedling abnormality frequency in the half-sib progenies of Santalum album. Indian Forest, 113: 650-651.

Baskorowati L, 2006. Controlled Pollination Methods for Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betce) Chell. ACIAR Technical Report 63. ACIAR, Canberra.

Bhaskar V, 1992. Pollination biology and fertilization in Santalum album L (Santalaceaea). Flora 187: 73 – 74

Brand JE, 1994. Genotypic variation in Santalum album L. Sandalwood Research Newsletter 2: 2 – 4.

CAB International, 2000. Santalum album (sandalwood) Santalaceae. Forest Compendium Global Module. Wallingford UK. CAB Intenational, diunduh dari pada tanggal 12 Desember 2010

CITES, diunduh dari pada tanggal 12 Desember 2010

Doran CJ, JW Turnbull (eds.), 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: spesies for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. ACIAR monograph No. 24, 384 p.

Eldridge K, J Davidson, C Harwood, and G van Wyk, 1993. Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 322 p.

Faegri K and L van der Pijl, 1979. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Third edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 244 p.

Fox JED, JE Brand, DR Barret, E Markhum, 1995. Genetic variation in Santalum album in Timor. In: Sandalwood Seed Nursery and Plantation Technology, eds Gjerum L, Fox JED, Erhart L, pp. 93 - 110. Food and Agricultur Organization (FAO), Suva.

Florence RG, 1964. A comparative study of flowering and seed production in six blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis Sm.) forest stands. Australian Forestry 28: 28 -33.

Friedel MH, DJ Nelson, AD Sparrow, JE Kinloch, and JR Maconochie, 1993. What induces central Australian arid zone trees and shrubs to flower and fruit? Australian Journal of Botany 41: 307 – 319.

Jyothi PV, JB Alturi, RC Subba, 1991. Polination ecology of Santalum album (Santalaceae). Tropical Ecology 32: 92 – 104.

Kearns CA, and DW Inouye, 1993. Techniques for Pollination Biologist. University Press of Colorado, Colorado.

Keatley MR and L Hudson, 1998. The influence of fruit and bud volumes on eucalypt flowering-an explanatory analysis, Australian Journal of Botany 46: 281 – 304.

Ma G, E Bunn, J Zhang, G Wu, 2006. Evidence of Dichogamy in Santalum album L. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 48 (3): 300 – 306.

Moza MK and AK Bhatnagar., 2007. Plant reproductive biology studies crucial for conservation. Current Science, 92:9.

Pacini E, M Nepi, and JL Vespirini, 2003. Nectar biodiversity: a short review. Plant Sistematics and Evolution 283: 7 – 21.

Pandit S, and BC Choudhury, 2001. Factors affecting pollinator visitation and reproductive success in Sonneratia caseolaris and Aegiceras corniculatum in a mangrove forest in India. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 431 – 447.

Prasetyaningtyas M, 2005. Studi fenologi pembungaan dan penyerbukan Santalum album Linn. Master Thesis Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta.Unpublished.

Primack RB, and DW Inouye, 1993. Factors effecting pollination visitation rates: A biogeographic comparison. Current Science 65: 257 – 262.

Rugkhla A, JA McComb, MGK Jones, 1997. Intra- and inter-specific pollination of Santalum spicatum and S. album. Australian Journal of Botany, 45: 1083-1095.

Sedgley M, and AR Griffin, 1989. Sexual Reproduction of Tree Crops. Academic Press, London.

Sedgley M, WC Yong, V Newman, J Harbard, RM Smith, KK Ga,n and A Tadjudin, 1991. Phenology of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis in Australia and Malaysia, ACIAR Workshop on Hybridization and Vegetative Propagation of Tropical Acacias, July 1 – 4 Canberra.

Smith-Ramirez C, and JJ Armesto, 1994. Flowering and fruiting in the temperate rainforest of Chiloé, Chile- ecologies and climatic constraints. Journal of Ecology 82: 353 – 365.

Srimanthi RA, 1983. Breeding of sandal. A tropical hardwood tree. Current status and future prospects. ISTS Symposium on Advance in tree spesies. Forest Research Institure, Dehra Dun India.

Srimanthi RA, and HC Nagaveni, 1995. Sandal seed viability, germination and storage. Recent advances in research and management of Sandal (Santalum album) in India. Edited by RA Srimanthi, HD Kulkani and KR Venkatesan. Associated Publishing Co, New Delhi, pp. 77 - 87.

Suma TB, M Balasundaran, 2003. Isozyme variation in five provenances of Santalum album in India. Australian Journal of Botany, 51: 243 – 249.

Tibbits WN, DB Boomsma, and S Jarvis, 1997. Distribution, biology, genetics and improvement programs for Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens around the world. In: Proceeding of the 24th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, June 9 – 12, eds T. White, D. Huber and G. Powell. Southern Tree Improvement Committee, Orlando, Florida, pp. 1 – 15.

Veerendra HCS, and HSA Padmanaba, 1996. The breeding system in sandal (Santalum álbum L.). Silvae Genetica, 45: 188 – 190.

Veerendra HCS, dan M Sujatha, 1989. Pollination studies in Santalum álbum L. Current Science, 58: 629 – 630.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Indexed By:


Copyright of Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan (JPTH)

eISSN : 2527-8665   pISSN : 1693-7147