Viability of Penicillium Citrinum on Different Carrier Media as Organic Fertilizer

Safinah Surya Hakim, Tri Wira Yuwati, Dony Rachmandi, Purwanto B Santosa, Adnan Ardhana, Dewi Alimah

Abstract


The use of bio-fertilizer is increasing along with the awareness of eco-friendly life style. The use of bio-fertilizer give several advantages such as enhancing plant growth, provide plant nutritions, easily absorbed by plant and environmental friendly. Endophytic fungi can be used as biological fertilizers.In this study, endophytic fungi Penicillium citrinum isolate P3.10 were used as a main ingredient for biological fertilizers. This study aims to investigate: (a) the most effective carrier material for biological fertilizers made from endophytic fungi P. citrinum and (b) maximum shelf-life of biofertilizers. Three carrier materials were tested to find out the best carrier as biological fertilizer carriers. Factorial Completely Randomized Design with two factors used in this study with the first factor is the type of carrier material (rice bran, saw dust, and peat soil), and the second factor is storage time (14, 28, 42, 56, dan 70 days).The result of the study and consideration based on the standards of biological fertilizer regulation of the Minister of Agriculture Number 70 / Permentan / SR.140 / 19/2011) showed that of the three tested carriers (rice bran, sawdust, and peat), peat showed the best performance as biofertilizer carrier with the recommend maximum shelf-life is 28 days (5,62 x 105 cfu/gram) due to its C/N ratio value and its viability to maintain the number of viable fungi.

Keywords: formulation, biofertilizer, endophytic fungi, peat soil, shelf-life

 


References


Arnold, A. E., Mejı, L. C., Kyllo, D., Rojas, E. I., Maynard, Z., Robbins, N., & Herre, E. A. (2003). Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree. PNAS, 100(26), 15649–15654.

Arnold, E. (2001). Diversity and Ecology of Fungal Endophytes in Tropical Forests. In Biodiversity of fungi: Their Role in Human Life (pp. 49–68).

Brahmaprakash, G. P., & Sahu, P. K. (2012). Biofertilizers for Sustainability. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, 92(1), 37–62.

Brar, S. K., Sarma, S. J., & Chaabouni, E. (2012). Shelf-life of Biofertilizers : An Accord between Formulations and Genetics. Journal Biofertilizers & Biopesticides, 3(5). http://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6202.1000e109

Gopalan, T. S., Shaanker,V., Ravikanth, R. U., & Sengupta, A. (2017). Translating Endophyte Research to Applications : Prospects and Challenges to Applications : Prospects and Challenges. In J. de Azedevo & M. Quecine (Eds.), Diveristy and Benefits of Microorganism from the Tropics (pp. 342–365). Springer International Medicine. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55804-2

Hakim, S. S., Yuwati, T. W., & Nurulita, S. (2017). Isolation of Peat Swamp Forest Foliar Endophyte Fungi as Biofertilizer. Journal of Wetland Environmental Management, 5(1), 10–17.

Kalil, M. I., Hussein, G. S., & Shareef, A. M. (2017). Aflatoxin production and genes assay in Aspergillusflavus isolated from spices. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science, Technology and Engineering, 6(9), 60–67.

Kementrian Pertanian. (2016). Pupuk Terdaftar. Jakarta: Kementrian Pertanian Direktorat Jendral Prasarana dan Sarana Penelitian Direktori Pupuk dan Pestisida.

Khan, S. A., Hamayun, M., Yoon, H., Kim, H.Y., Suh, S.J., Hwang, S. K., … Kim, J.-G. (2008). Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum. BMC Microbiology, 8, 231. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-8-231

Kumar, V. (2014). Characterization, bio-formulation development and shelf-life studies of locally isolated bio-fertilizer strains. Octa Journal of Environmental Research, 2(1), 32–37.

Lestari, Y., & Mukhlis. (2017). Mikroba Potensial pada Ekosistem Lahan Rawa. In Masganti, Noor, M., Alwi M., Subagio, H., Simatupang, S., Maftuah, E., F. Arifin, Aries, S.M. Thamrin, M, . Sosiawan (Eds.), Agroekologi Rawa (1st ed., pp. 288–310). Depok: Rajawali Pers.

Malusa, E., Sas-Paszt, I., & Cieselka, J. (2012). Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers. The Scientific World Journal, 491206, 1-12.

http://doi.org/10.1100/2012/491206

Maulana, A. F., Turjaman, M., & Hashimoto, Y. (2017). Nutrient Concentration in Growth Medium Affects Relationship between Root Endophytic Fungi and Host Plant. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 18(5), 1–11.

http://doi.org/10.9734/JEAI/2017/37487

Maulana, A. F., Turjaman, M., Sato, T., Hashimoto, Y., & Cheng, W. (2018). Isolation of endophytic fungi from tropical forest in Indonesia. Symbiosis, 76(2), 151–162.

Mejıa, L. C., Rojas, E. I., Maynard, Z., Bael, S. Van, Arnold, A. E., Hebbar, P.,Samuel, G. J, Robbins N, Allen, E. (2008). Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens. Biological Control, 46, 4–14. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.01.012

Mishra, P., & Dash, D. (2014). Rejuvenation of Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture and Economic Development. Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development, 11(1), 41–61.

Mona, S. Z. (2016). Advances in Formulation Development Technologies. In D. P. Singh, H. B. Singh, & R. Prabha (Eds.), Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity Vol 2: Functional Applications (pp. 219–238). New Delhi: Springer India. http://doi.org/.7/987-81-322-2644-4_14

Nicoletti, R., Buommino, E., & Tufano, M. A. (2012). Patenting Penicillium Strains. Recent Patens on Biotechnology, 6(2), 1–16

Pindi, P. K., & Satyanarayana, S. (2012). Liquid Microbial Consortium- A Potential Tool for Sustainable Soil Health. J Biofertil Biopestici, 3(4). http://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6202.1000124.

Pal, S., Singh, H. B., Farooqui, A., & Rakshit, A. (2015). Fungal biofertilizers in Indian agriculture : perception , demand and promotion. Journal of Eco-Friendly Agriculture, 10(2), 101–113.

Pandey, A., Das, N., Kumar, B., Rinu, K., & Trivedi, P. (2008). Phosphate solubilization by Penicillium spp. isolated from soil samples of Indian Himalayan region. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24(1), 97–102. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-007-9444-1

Pindi, P. K., & Satyanarayana, S. (2012). Liquid Microbial Consortium- A Potential Tool for Sustainable Soil Health. J Biofertil Biopestici, 3(124). http://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6202.1000124

Prihastuti. (2012). Karakteristik Gambut Rawa Pening dan Potensinya sebagai Bahan Pembawa Mikroba. Biosfera, 29(2), 109–115.

Princy, T., Balamurugan, A., Nepolean, R. J. P., Mareeswaran, J., Kuberan, T., & Premkumar, R. (2014). Studies on mass multiplication and shelf-life of biofertilizers formulation used in tea. American-Eurasian J. Agriculture and Environmental Science, 14(May), 580–583.

http://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2014.14.06.12372

Resha, N., Himawan, T., & Rachmawati, R. (2014). Pengaruh pengkayaan media dan suhu penyimpanan terhadap kerapatan dan viabilitas konidia jamur patogen serangga Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreaes: Cordycipitaceae). Jurnal Hama Dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, 2(3), 42–50.

Rodriguez, R., White-Jr, J., Arnold, A., & Redman, R. (2009). Fungal endophytes : diversity and functional roles. New Phytologist, 182, 314–330.

Sahu, P. K. & Bramaprakash, G. (2016). Formulations of Biofertilizers-Approaches and Advances. In D. P. Singh, R. Prabha, & H. B. Singh (Eds.), Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity: (pp. 179–198). New Delhi: Springer India.

Simanungkalit, R., Ardi Suriadikarta, D., Saraswati, R., Setyorini, D., & Hartatik, W. (2010). Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Sukara, E., & Tobing, I. S. L. (2008). Industri berbasis keanekaragaman hayati, masa depan indonesia. Vis Vitalis, 01(2), 1–12.

Suryanarayanan, T. S., Murali, T. S., & Venkatesan, G. (2002). Occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in tropical forests across a rainfall gradient. Canadian Journal of Botany, 80(8), 818–826. http://doi.org/10.1139/b02-069

Sutjaritvorakul, T., Whalley, A., Sihanont, P., & Roengsumran, S. (2010). Antimicrobial activity from endophytic fungi isolated from plant leaves in Dipterocarpous forest at Viengsa district Nan province , Thailand. Journal of Agriculture Techomology, 6(2), 309–315.

Supriyanto, & Sulistyowati, H. (2011). Pengembangan PGPF menjadi pupuk dan pestisida hayati. J. Perkebunan Dan Lahan Tropika, 1, 19–27.

Suwahyono U. (2010). Biopestisida: Cara Membuat dan Petujuk Penggunaan (Cet.1). Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya.

Uruilal, C., Kalay, A., Kaya, E., & Siregar, A. (2012). Pemanfaatan kompos ela sagu, sekam dan dedak sebagai media perbanyakan agens hayati. Agrologia, 1(1), 21–30.

Uthayasooriyan, M., Pathmanathan, S., Ravimannan, N., & Sathyaruban, S. (2016). Formulation of alternative culture media for bacterial and fungal growth. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8(1), 431–436.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.20886/jwas.v6i2.5366

Published by :
Environment and Forestry Research and Development Institute of Manado
Address   Jalan Raya Adipura, Kelurahan Kima Atas, Keamatan. Mapanget       Manado 95259 Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia
Phone     : (0431) 7242949
Web        : http://www.balithut-manado.org 

Email     : publikasi.bpkmdo@yahoo.com 

Copyright © 2015 | Jurnal Wasian, Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (BPPLHK) Manado (e-ISSN 2502-5198, p-ISSN 2355-9969).

 

View My Stats