Autor(s): Arif Nirsatmanto, Teguh Setyaji, Sri Sunarti, Dwi Kartikaningtyas
DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2015.2.2.71-79


Two cycles breeding program of Acacia mangium was practiced by Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research. Although improved seed from the breeding program have been used in operational plantation, the real amount of gains in productivity was not verified together yet.  This study was aimed to observe realized genetic gain and projected increase in stand volume from the two cycles breeding of A. mangium, and to discuss the implications on plantation productivity and sustainable forestry in Indonesia. Improved seed from first and second-generation seed orchard were tested together with an unimproved seed in genetic gain trial in West Java, with spacing of 3 x 3 m. Measurements were done at three years ages for height, dbh, and stem volume. Realized genetic gain was calculated as the percentage increase of improved seed over the unimproved one. Results of study showed that improved seed performed better growth than the unimproved with realized gain of 5-24% (height), 3-44% (dbh) and 11-90% (stem volume). Improved seed from second-generation outperformed that from the first-generation, with an improvement of 6-16% (height), 3-26% (dbh) and 20-53% (stem volume). Genetic gains increased with increasing ages for height, but it tended to decrease for dbh and stem volume. At given site and silvicultural practices, projected increase in stand volume at 8 years rotation reached 290-325 m3/ha, which is equal to 30-50% of gains. The uses of high genetically improved seed, in combination with intensive silviculture, would provide significant impacts on plantation productivity and sustainable forestry in Indonesia.


Acacia mangium; first-generation; second-generation; genetic gain trial; stand volume; realized genetic gain; productivity; sustainable forestry

Full Text:



Clutter, J. L., Fortson, J. C., Pienaar, L. V., Britste, G. H., & Bailey, R. L. (1983). Timber management: quantitative approach. New York, USA: John Willey & Sons.

Eldridge, K. G. (1982). Genetic improvements from a radiate pine seed orchard. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science, 12, 404–411.

Hardiyanto, E. B. (2004). Acacia mangium - Silviculture and Breeding (in Bahasa Indonesia). In E. B. Hardiyanto & H. Arisman (Eds.), Industrial Plantation Forest Development: Experiences in PT . Musi Hutan Persada , South Sumatra . (pp. 207–268). Yogyakarta: Polydor.

Harwood, C. E., & Williams, E. R. (1991). A review of provenance variation in growth of Acacia mangium. In L. T. Carron & K. M. Aken (Eds.), Breeding Technologies for Tropical Acacias. Proceeding of a Workshop held in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia, 1-4 July 1991. ACIAR Proceeding 37 (pp. 22–30).

Hashimoto, K., Kurinobu, S., & Suhaendi, H. (1996). Establishment of seed sources of tropical tree species in Indonesia. In Tree improvement for sustainable tropical forestry. Proceeding of the QFRI-IUFRO Conference, Caloundra, Australia. 27 October – 1 November 1996 (pp. 370–371).

Hastanto, H. (2009). The Role of yielding seeds to increase the productivity of Acacia mangium plantations in PT . Musi Hutan Persada (in Bahasa Indonesia). In B. Leksono, A. AYPBC Widyatmoko, & A. Nirsatmanto (Eds.), Prosiding Ekspose Hasil-Hasil Penelitian: Status Terkini Penelitian Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan, Yogyakarta, 1 Oktober 2009 (pp. 136–146).

Inose, M., Sarid, Z., & Nakamura, T. (1992). Growth analysis of Acacia mangium. Hoppo Ringyo, 2, 17–19.

Kari, T., Otsamo, A., Kuusipalo, J., Vuokko, R., & Nikles, G. (1996). Effect of provenance variation and singling and pruning on early growth of Acacia mangium Willd. Plantation on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., dominated grassland. Forest Ecology Management, 84, 241 – 249.

Kurinobu, S., Arisman, H., Leksono, B., & Hardiyanto, E. B. (2006). An impact of genetic improvement on the plantation management of Acacia mangium assessed by a growth model with size-density relationship. In Proceeding of international seminar on plantation forest research and development, 21-23 November 2005, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (pp. 120–124). Yogyakarta: Centre for Plantation Forest Research and Development.

Kurinobu, S., & Rimbawanto, A. (2002). Genetic improvement of plantation species in Indonesia-Summary of Project Achievement (JICA Forest Tree Improvement Phase II). In A. Rimbawanto & M. Susanto (Eds.), Proceedings of international conference on advances in genetic improvement of tropical tree species, 1-3 October 2002, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement.

Manurung, E. G. T., Simangunsong, B. C., Sukadri, D. S., Widyantoro, B., Justianto, A., Ramadhan, S., Supriyanto, B. (2007). The revitalization of Indonesia's forestry industry (in Bahasa Indonesia) (p. 60). Jakarta: In-House Experts Working Group Revitalisasi Industri Kehutanan - Departemen Kehutanan.

Ministry of Forestry. (2010). Opening address by The Minister of Forestry on International Seminar Research on Plantation Forest: Challenges and Opportunities. In Proceeding International Seminar on Plantation Forest Management: Challenges and Opportunities, 5-6 November 2009, Bogor, Indonesia. Bogor: Center for Plantation Forest Research and Development.

Nirsatmanto, A., Kurinobu, S., & Hardiyanto, E. B. (2003). A projected increase in stand volume of introduced provenances of Acacia mangium in seedling seed orchards in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Forest Research, 8, 127–131.

Setyaji, T. (2011). Genetic x Environment interaction on the second-generation (F-2) of Acacia mangium Willd., breeding seedling orchard in four locations in Sumatera and Kalimantan (Thesis, in Bahasa Indonesia) (p.50). Graduate School of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta

Zobel, B.J. and J. Talbert. 1984. Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 505p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.