Autor(s): Wiwin Tyas Istikowati, Sunardi Sunardi, Budi Sutiya, Purnama Lestari, Ahmad Arsyad, Lusyiani Lusyiani, Danang Sudarwoko Adi, Widya Fatriasari, Riska Surya Ningrum, Dede Heri Yuli Yanto
DOI: 10.59465/ijfr.2023.10.2.185-194


This research aims to evaluate the suitability of sago palm waste as a fiber raw material in terms of its chemical content and anatomical characteristics. The chemical content analysis of its extractive components, lignin, holocellulose, α-cellulose, and hemicellulose, was carried out using sago frond powder with a size of 40–60 mesh. Subsequently, functional group analysis was performed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), while anatomical characterization was carried out by calculating the fiber length and diameter, lumen diameter, fiber derivative values, and wall thickness using a microscope connected to a digital camera. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) pictures were taken in different magnifications. The results showed that sago frond contains 31.6% α-cellulose and 38% lignin. The α-cellulose content was within the standard range for non-timber forest products, but the lignin content had a relatively high value. Based on the derived value, namely class II, sago frond can be used as pulp and paper raw materials.


Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.), Anatomical Characteristic, Chemical Content, FTIR

Full Text:



Directorate General of Plantation. (2017). Statistics of Indonesian Plantation 2016-2018: Sago. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Jakarta: Sekretariat Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan.

Durmaz, S., Ozgenc, O., Boyaci, I. H., Yildiz, U.C. & Erisir, E. 2016. Examination of the chemical changes in spruce wood degraded by brown-rot fungi using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 85:202-207.

El-Sayed, E. S. A., El-Sakhawy, M., & El-Sakhawy, M. A. M. (2020). Non-wood fibers as raw material for pulp and paper industry. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal,

Fiserova, M., Gigac, J., & Balbercak, J. (2010). Relationship between fibre characteristics and tensile Strength of hardwood and softwood craft pulps. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 44 (7-8), 249-253.

Hakim, L., Widyorini, R., Nugroho, D. W., & Prayitno T. A. (2021). Radial variability of fibrovasculer bundle properties of salacca (Salacca zalacca) fronds cultivated on Turi Agrotourism in Yogyakarta Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 22 (8), 3594-3603.

Herlina, Istikowati, W. T. & Fatriani. (2019). Analysis chemical and fiber of pandan rasau (Pandanus helicopus) as alternative of pulp and paper raw material. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Jurnal Sylva Scienteae, 1(2), 150-159.

Istikowati, W. T., Aiso, H., Ishiguri, F., Sunardi, Sutiya, B., Ohshima, J., Iizuka, K., Yokota, S. (2016a). Study of radial variation in anatomical characteristics of three native fast-growing tree species of a secondary forest in South Kalimantan for evaluation as pulpwood. Appita, 69(1), 49-56.

Istikowati, W. T., Aiso, H., Sunardi, Sutiya, B., Ishiguri, F., Ohshima, J., Lizuka, K., & Yokota, S. (2016b). Wood, chemical, and pulp properties of woods from less-utilized fast-growing tree species found in naturally regenerated secondary forest in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 36, 250-258.

Johan. P. D., Ahmed, O. H., Omar, L., & Hasbullah, N. A. (2021). Charcoal and sago bark ash on pH buffering capacity and phosphorus leaching. Agronomy, 11(11), 2223.

Karlinasari, L., Nawawi, D.S., & Widyani, M. 2010. Study of characteristics anatomy and chemical properties related with wood acoustic. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Bionatura-Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Hayati dan Fisik, 12(3), 110-119.

Marvie, I., & Sunarti, T. C. (2021). Utilization cellulose of sago frond for production of prebiotic hydrolysate through enzymatic hydrolysis. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Journal of Science, Technology, and Virtual Culture, 1(3), 155-163.

Nasdy, A. W. (2013). Quality of Ampupu (Eucaliptus urophylla S. T. Blake) Wood at Different the Old Years as Raw Material of Pulp and Paper. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Bogor: Department of Forest Product, Forestry Faculty, Bogor Agriculture Institute.

Putra, A. F. R., Wardenaar, E., & Hasni, H. (2018). Analysis of chemical component of sengon (Albizia falcataria L.) based on position in stem. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Jurnal Hutan Lestari, 6(1), 83-89.

Saputra I., Kissinger, & Itta, D. (2022). Distribution and utilization of sago plants (Metroxylon sago) in Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan. Sylva Scienteae, 5(2), 212-217.

Silitonga, T., Siagian, R., & Nurrachman A. 1972. How to measure wood fiber at the Forest Product Research Institute (in Bahasa Indonesia). Special edition no 12. Bogor. LPHH.

Sugesty, S., Kardiansyah, T., & Pratiwi, W. J. (2015). Potency of Acacia crassicarpa a raw material as pulp and paper for industrial plantation forest. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Selulosa, 5(1), 21-32.

Sunardi & Istikowati, W. T. (2012). Analysis of chemical content and fiber properties of purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis) from South Kalimantan. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Bioscientiae, 9(2), 15-25.

Sutiya, B., Istikowati, W. T., & Rahmadi, A. (2012). Chemical content and fiber properties of alang-alang (Impreta cylindrica) as perspective as pulp and paper raw material. (in Bahasa Indonesia). Bioscientae, 9(1), 8-19 .

Tamunaidu, P., & Saka, S. (2011). Chemical characterization of various parts of nipa palm (Nypa fruticans). Industrial Crops and Products, 34, 1423-1428.

The Japan Wood Research Society. (2000). Analysis of main chemical components in wood. In The Japan Wood Research Society Manual for Wood Research Experiment; Japan Wood Research Society: Buneido, Tokyo. (in Japanese).

Wahi, R., Chuah, L. A., Ngaini, Z., Nourouzi, M. M., & Choong, T. S. Y. (2014). Esterification of sago bark as an adsorbent for removal of emulsified oil. J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2(1), 324-331.

Yahya, R., Sariasih, Y., Silsia, D., Nuriyatin, N., Desmantoro, Mainaswati, & Elveri O. (2019). Chemical composition, fiber morphology, and Kraft pulping of empty fruit bunch of dura variety (Elaies guineensis Jack). IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 36. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/361/1/012024.


  • There are currently no refbacks.