PERAN RHIZOBAKTERI DALAM FITOEKSTRAKSI LOGAM BERAT KROMIUM PADA TANAMAN JAGUNG

MMA Retno Rosariastuti, Ali Pramono, Ngadiman Ngadiman, Irfan D Prijambada

Abstract


Logam berat bersifat persisten dalam lingkungan dan diketahui mengubah biodiversitas, struktur dan fungsi ekosistem tanah. Remediasi tanah terkontaminasi logam menjadi penting, karena tanah sebagai media penghasil bahan pangan. Pendekatan konvensional untuk remediasi tempat yang terkontaminasi logam meliputi fisika dan kimia, namun aplikasi proses-proses ini terbatas karena kendala teknologi dan ekonomi. Oleh karena itu diperlukan metode remediasi yang murah, aman dan ramah lingkungan seperti bioremediasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan rhizobakteri dalam membantu fitoekstraksi logam berat kromium pada tanaman jagung. Tahapan penelitian meliputi 1) uji toleransi bakteri terhadap Cr(VI), 2) uji reduksi Cr(VI), dan 3) uji serapan Cr(VI) pada tanaman jagung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Isolat 27 toleran terhadap toksisitas Cr(VI) pada konsentrasi 15 ppm. Isolat 27 mereduksi Cr(VI) secara sempurna dalam waktu 18 jam. Isolat 27 membantu fitoekstraksi logam kromium pada tanaman jagung sebesar 241 kali dibandingkan kontrol. Perlu penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui jenis asam yang berperan dalam mekanisme fitoekstraksi pada tanaman jagung. Isolat 27 dapat digunakan sebagai inokulan dalam fitoremediasi dan pemacu pertumbuhan tanaman.

Keywords


Cr(VI), maize plant, phytoextraction, rhizobacteria

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20886/jklh.2012.6.1.38-50

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