Toni Herawan, Mohammad Na'iem, Sapto Indrioko, Ari Indrianto, Liliek Haryjanto, Titis Budi Widowati


Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) is a tree which has a high rate of natural sprouting ability. Eventhough the propagation by the conventional techniques (shoot and root cuttings) and by the tissue culture have been reported, the percentage of plants regeneration is still low. The propagation using somatic embryogenesis was reported as better result than using shoots multiplication technique or organogenesis. The objective of this research is to examine the effect of clones, type and concentration of plant growth regulator on the development embryogenic callus of sandalwood. The three tested clones are C1, C2, and C3. The plant growth regulators are 2.4-D, Dicamba, and Picloram with the three level of concentrations:1 mg/L, 3 mg/L, and 5 mg/L. The result of study showed that the clone of C3 performed best on embryogenic callus development. It was observed through morphological analysis that 58.12% of explants performed embryogenic callus with friable texture and white, yellowish in colours. However, there were not significant differences between the types of plant growth regulator, the level of concentrations and their interactions on embryogenic callus development of sandalwood


explant; in vitro; somatic embryogenesis; plant propagation

Full Text:



Avivi, S., Prawoto, A., & Oetami, R. F. (2010). Regenerasi embriogenesis somatik pada beberapa klon kakao Indonesia dari eksplan bunga. J. Agr. on Indonesia, 38(2), 138–143. Retrieved from

Bele, D., Tripathi, M. . K., Tiwari, G., Baghel, B. S., & Tiwari, S. (2012). Microcloning of sandalwood (Santalum album Linn) from cultured leaf discs. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(2), 571–583.

Chantrapradist, C., & Kanchanapoom, K. (1995). Somatic embryo Formation From Cotyledonary Culture of Theobroma cacao L. J. Sci. Soc. Thailand, 21, 125–130. Retrieved from

Gaj, M. D. (2001). Direct somatic embryogenesis as a rapid and efficient system for in vitro regeneration of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 64(1), 39–46. Retrieved from /article/10.1023/A%3A1010679614721

Hadrami, I. El, Carron, M., & D’Auzac, J. (1991). Influence of exogenous hormones on somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. Annals of Botany, 67(6), 511–515.

Haryjanto, L., Widowati, T. B., Fiani, A., & Hadiyan, Y. (2017). Variasi kandungan kimia minyak cendana (Santalum album Linn) dari berbagai provenans di Indonesia. Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan, 11(1), 77–85.

Herawan, T., Na’iem, M., Indrioko, S., & Indrianto, A. (2014). Somatic embryogenesis of Sandalwood (Santalum album L.). Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology, 19(2), 168–175.

Herawan, T., Na’iem, M., Indrioko, S., & Indrianto, A. (2015). Kultur jaringan cendana (Santalum album L.) menggunakan eksplan mata tunas. Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan, 9(3), 177–188.

Janarthanam, B., & Sumathi, E. (2011). High frequency shoot regeneration from internodal explants of Santalum album L. International Journal of Botany, 7(3), 249–254.

Misra, B. B., Das, S. S., & Dey, S. (2013). Volatile profiling from heartwood of East Indian sandalwood tree. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 7(4), 299–303.

Mujib, A. (2005). In vitro regeneration of sandal (Santalum album L.) from leaves. Turkish Journal of Botany, 29(1), 63–67.

Murashige, T., & Skoog, F. (1962). A Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bio Assays with Tobacco Tissue Cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473–497. Retrieved from Artigo MS 1962.pdf

Peeris, M., & Senarath, W. (2015). In vitro propagation of Santalum album L. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 43(3), 265–272.

Revathy, E., & Arumugam, S. (2011). Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration from seedling explants of Santalum album L. International Journal of Current Research, 33(6), 237–241.

Riyadi, I., & Tirtobomo, F. (2004). Pengaruh 2,4-D terhadap induksi embrio somatik kopi arabika. Buletin Plasma Nutfah, 10(2), 82–89. p.82-89

Rugkhla, A., & Jones, M. G. K. (1998). Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation in Santalum album and S. spicatum. Journal of Experimental Botany, 49(320), 563–571.

Soeseno, O. H. (2001). Prospek pengembangan cendana di Nusa Tenggara Timur. Berita Biologi, 5(5), 479–486. Retrieved from

Zuyasna, Z., Nurahmi, E., & Fajri, R. (2014). pengaruh jenis kakao dan kombinasi zat pengatur tumbuh terhadap induksi embrio sematik secara in vitro. Jurnal Floratek.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Indexed By:


Copyright of Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan (JPTH)

eISSN : 2527-8665   pISSN : 1693-7147