PENGARUH AKTIVITAS PARIWISATA TERHADAP KERAGAMAN JENIS DAN POPULASI KUPU-KUPU DI TAMAN NASIONAL BANTIMURUNG BULUSARAUNG

Indra ASLP Putri

Sari


ABSTRACT

Butterflies have been prominently recognized as insect group of highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances. The aim of the research was to identify the effect of tourism activities to diversity and population of butterflies at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. The research was conducted by comparing the population size of butterflies at low human disturbance secondary forest and recreation area. The population of butterflies was collected using Pollard Walk transect method. Data was analyzed using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou’s evenness index, Simpson dominance index, Margalef species richness index, and Sorensen Similarity index. Mann-Whitney Test was used to test the differences between low human disturbance secondary forest and recreation area. The result showed that tourism activities bring negative impact on the butterfly communities. The value of dominance index on the recreation area was higher than on the low human disturbance secondary forest. The number of species, number of individuals, number of families and the value of Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index and Pielou’s evenness index on the low human disturbance secondary forest were higher than on the recreation area. Statistical analysis of Mann-Whitney Test showed that butterflies’ population on the recreation area and on the low human disturbance secondary forest was statistically significant difference. Based on these findings, it is important to reorganize the recreation area and butterfly conservation management, spread the information about national wildlife protection law, enforce the law, increases the number of butterfly’s breeder and increases the public awareness to maintain the sustainability of butterfly population.

Key words : Butterfly diversity, human disturbance, national park’s recreation area, recreation impact, wilderness management

ABSTRAK

Kupu-kupu tergolong serangga yang peka terhadap gangguan oleh manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh aktivitas pariwisata terhadap keragaman jenis dan populasi kupu-kupu di Taman Nasional Bantimurung Bulusaraung. Penelitian dilakukan dengan membandingkan populasi kupu-kupu yang dijumpai pada kawasan hutan sekunder yang jarang didatangi manusia dengan kawasan rekreasi. Pengambilan data populasi kupu-kupu dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Pollard-Walk transek. Analisis data menggunakan indeks keragaman jenis Shannon-Wiener, indeks kemerataan jenis Pielou, indeks dominasi Simpson, indeks kekayaan jenis Margalef dan indeks kesamaan jenis Sorensen. Beda nyata pada populasi kupu-kupu yang dijumpai di kedua lokasi penelitian diuji dengan menggunakan uji Mann-Whitney. Pengaruh aktivitas wisata terhadap kupu-kupu terlihat dari adanya perbedaan nyata pada populasi kupu-kupu pada kedua lokasi penelitian. Nilai indeks dominansi Simpson terlihat lebih tinggi pada areal yang mendapat gangguan akibat kegiatan wisata. Jumlah jenis, jumlah individu, nilai indeks keragaman Shannon-Wiener, nilai indeks kemerataan Pielou dan nilai indeks kekayaan jenis Margalef pada areal yang mendapat gangguan akibat kegiatan wisata lebih rendah dibanding areal hutan sekunder yang kurang mendapat gangguan manusia. Diperlukan adanya penataan ulang pengelolaan obyek wisata dan kupu-kupu, sosialisasi aturan perlindungan satwaliar, menerapkan aturan yang telah ada pada tingkat lokal serta penegakan hukum bagi pelanggar, peningkatan jumlah penangkar kupu-kupu serta peningkatan kesadaran masyarakat agar kupukupu tetap lestari.

Kata kunci : Gangguan manusia, kupu-kupu, manajemen hidupan liar, obyek wisata alam, pengaruh aktivitas wisata


Kata Kunci


Kupu-kupu; dampak pariwisata; Taman Nasional Bantimurung Bulusaraung

Teks Lengkap:

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20886/jphka.2016.13.2.101-118

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